Resources

A selected bibliography of Coptic phonology.

Bishai, Wilson B (1960). Notes on the Coptic substratum in Egyptian Arabic. Journal of the American Oriental Society 80(3):225-229. View

Bishai, Wilson B (1961). Nature and extent of Coptic phonological influence on Egyptian Arabic. Journal of Semitic Studies 6(2):175-182. View

Bishai, Wilson B (1964). Coptic lexical influence on Egyptian Arabic. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 23(1):39-47. View

Blau, J (1979). Some observations on a Middle Arabic Egyptian text in Coptic characters. Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 1:215-262. View

Burmester, OHE (1965-1966). Further leaves from the Arabic MS. in Coptic script of the Apophthegmata Patrum. Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 18:51-64 [6 plates]. View

Casanova, Paul (1901). Un texte arabe transcrit en caractères coptes. Le Bulletin de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale 1:1-20. View

Chassinat, Émile (1921). Un papyrus médical copte. Mémoires publiés par les membres de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire, 32. [Selected sections only: introduction, discussion of Coptic phonology, and index of Arabic words transcribed in Coptic.] View

Cramer, Maria (1961). Vat. copt. 18 und die Aussprache des Koptischen. Oriens Christianus 45:78-94. View

Crum, Walter E (1902). A bilingual charm. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 24:329-331. View

Depuydt, Leo (1993). On Coptic sounds. Orientalia (new series) 63:338-375. View

Dyneley Prince, John (1902). The modern pronunciation of Coptic in the Mass. Journal of the American Oriental Society 23:289-306. View

Farag, F Rofail (1976). The usage of the Coptic Language as a constituent element of the literary form of Severus Ibn al-Muqaffa. Bibliotheca Orientalis 33(5/6):275-283. View

Galtier, Émile (1906). Coptica-arabica. Le Bulletin de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale 5:87-164. View

Gaslee, S (1916). The pronunciation of Greek in Christian Egypt. The Classical Review 30(1):6-7. View

Georgacas, Demetrius J (1959). Greek terms for “flax,” “linen,” and their derivatives; and the problem of native Egyptian phonological influence on the Greek of Egypt. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 13:253-269. View

Gignac, Francis Thomas (1970). The pronunciation of the Greek stops in the papyri. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 101:185-202. View

Gignac, Francis Thomas (1991). Phonology of the Greek of Egypt, influence of Coptic on the. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 186-188. View

Girgis WA; in religion, Abba Pachomius Al-Muharraki (1964). Greek loan words in Coptic (Part I). Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 17:63-73. View

Girgis WA; in religion, Abba Pachomius Al-Muharraki (1966). Greek loan words in Coptic (Part II). Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 18:71-96. View

Girgis WA; in religion, Bishop Gregorius (1970). Greek loan words in Coptic (Part III). Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 19:57-87. View

Girgis WA; in religion, Bishop Gregorius (1971). Greek loan words in Coptic (Part IV). Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 20:53-67. View

Greenberg, Joseph H (originally published 1962). The interpretation of the Coptic vowel system. In: On language: selected writings of Joseph H. Greenberg. Eds: K Denning & S Kemmer. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990: 428-438. View

Greenberg, Joseph H (originally published 1986). Were there Egyptian Koines? In: On language: selected writings of Joseph H. Greenberg. Eds: K Denning & S Kemmer. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990: 428-438. View

Hintze, Fritz (1980). Zur koptischen Phonologie. Enchoria 10:23-91. View

Ishak, Emile Maher (1975). The phonetics and phonology of the Bohairic dialect of Coptic and the survival of Coptic words in the Colloquial and Classical Arabic of Egypt and of Coptic grammatical constructions in Colloquial Arabic. Volumes 1 – 4. (A D.Phil Thesis submitted to the University of Oxford, September 1975). View Volume I (72MB) – Volume II (51 MB) – Volume III (88MB) – Volume IV (111MB) – Contents (97kB).

Ishaq, Emile Maher (1978). Ϯϫⲓⲛⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀Ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀Ⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ Ⲡⲉⲙϩⲓⲧ [The pronunciation of Old Bohairic Coptic]. [self-published]. View

Ishaq, Emile Maher (1991). Coptic language, spoken. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 2 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 604-607. View

Kasser, Rodolphe (1991). Aleph. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 27-30. View

Kasser, Rodolphe (1991). Alphabets, Coptic. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 32-41. View

Kasser, Rodolphe (1991). Alphabets, Old Coptic. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 41-45. View

Kasser, Rodolphe (1991). ‘Ayin. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 45-47. View

Kasser, Rodolphe (1991). Dialects. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 87-97. View

Kasser, Rodolphe (1991). Djinkim. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 111-112. View

Kasser, Rodolphe (1991). Phonology. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 184-186. View

Kasser, Rodolphe (1991). Syllabication. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 207-214. View

Knudsen, Ebbe E (1962). Sahidic Coptic vowel phonemes. Acta Orientalia 26:29-42. View

Lambdin, Thomas O (1958). The bivalence of Coptic Eta and related problems in the vocalisation of Egyptian. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 17(3):177-193. View

Loprieno, Antonio (1995). Egyptian phonology. In: Ancient Egyptian – a linguistic introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 28-50 [including notes and bibliography]. View

Loprieno, Antonio (1997). Egyptian and Coptic phonology. In: Phonologies of Asia and Africa (including the Caucasus). Vol 1 of 2. Ed: Alan S Kaye. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1997: pp. 431-460. View

Maspero, Gaston (1888). Le vocabulaire français d’un Copte du XIIIème siècle. Romania 17:481–512. Later republished in: Études de mythologie et d’archéologie égyptiennes (Vol 5). Ed: G Maspero. Paris: E. Leroux, 1911, pp. 175-212. View

Nagal, Peter. Akhmimic. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 19-27. View

Petraeus, Theodorus (1659). Psalmus primus Davidis, coptice, arabice et latine. London, 1659. Reproduced in: Émile Galtier (1906). Coptica-arabica. Le Bulletin de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale 5:110. View

Puest, Carsten (1999). Egyptian phonology: an introduction to the phonology of a dead language. Monographien zur ägyptischen Sprache; 2. Göttingen: Peust & Gutschmidt, 1999. View

Renouf, le Page (1889). A Coptic transcription of an Arabic text. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 11:155-158. View

Rochemonteix, M (1891/1892). La prononciation moderne du copte dans la Haute Égypte. Mémoires de la Société linguistique de Paris 7:245-276. View

Roquet, Gérard (1973). Vieux français et copte: contacts lexicaux. Le Bulletin de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale 73:1-25. View

Satzinger, Helmut (1972). Zur Phonetik des Bohairischen und des Ägyptisch-Arabischen im Mittelalter. Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 63/64:40-65. View

Satzinger, Helmut (1979). Phonologie des koptischen Verbs (Sa’idischer Dialekt). Ägypten und Altes Testament 1:343–368. View

Satzinger, Helmut (1990). On the prehistory of the Coptic dialects. In: Prace na Trzeci Miedzynarodowy Kongres Studiów Koptyjskich. Ed: Wlodzimierz Godlewski. Acts of the Third International Congress of Coptic Studies. Warsaw, 1990. View

Satzinger, Helmut (1991). Bohairic, pronunciation of late. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 60-65. View

Satzinger, Helmut (1999). Koptische Vokalphoneme und ägyptische Pluralformation. In: Ägypten und Nubien in spätantiker und christlicher Zeit. Eds: Stephen Emmel et alii. Akten des 6. Internationalen Koptologenkongresses, Münster, 20.-26. Juli 1996 (Band 2), (= Sprachen und Kulturen des christlichen Orients, 6,2). Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1999: pp. 365-374. View

Satzinger, Helmut (2006). Scratchy sounds getting smooth: the Egyptian velar fricatives and their palatalization. In: Acts of the 13° Incontro Italiano di Linguistica Camito-Semitica (Afroasiatica). Udine, 2006. View

Satzinger, Helmut (2008). What happened to the voiced consonants of Egyptian? In: Acts of the X International Congress of Egyptologists. Rhodes, 2008. View

Shisha-Halevy, Ariel (1991). Bohairic. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 53-60. View

Shisha-Halevy, Ariel (1991). Sahidic. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 194-202. View

Sobhy, Georgy PG (1915). The pronunciation of Coptic in the Church of Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 2(1):15-19. View

Sobhy, Georgy PG (1918). La prononciation moderne du copte dans l’église. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 14:51-56. View

Sobhy, Georgy PG (1925). The transliteration of the Ancient Egyptian names of towns, villages, etc. into Arabic. In: Comptes Rendu du Congrès International de Géographie. Le Caire, Avril 1925 (Volume 5). Ed: Adolphe Cattaui. Le Caire, 1925:  pp. 115-125. View

Sobhy, Georgy PG (1926). Fragments of an Arabic MS. in Coptic script. In: The Monasteries of the Wadi ‘n Natrun. Part I: New Coptic texts from the Monastery of Saint Macarius. Ed: HG Evelyn-White. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Egyptian Expedition, 1926: pp. 231-269. View

Sobhy, Georgy PG (1940). The traditional pronunciation of Coptic in the Church of Egypt. Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 6:109-117 [2 plates]. View

Sobhy, Georgy PG (1950). Common words in the spoken Arabic of Egypt, of Greek or Coptic origin. Le Caire: Institut français d’archéologie orientale. View

Stern, Ludwig (1885). Fragment eines koptischen Tractates über Alchimie. Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 23: 102–119. View

Szelog, Michael (2004). The sounds of Old Bohairic – a short phonological outline [self-published]. View

Vycichl, Werner (1936). Pi-Solsel, ein Dorf mit koptischer Überlieferung. In: Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 6:169–175. View

Worrell, William H (1929). The evolution of velar, palatal and dental stops in Coptic. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 15(3):191-193. View

Worrell, William H (1930). The pronunciation of Coptic. Journal of the American Oriental Society 50:144-149. View

Worrell, William H (1933). Syllabic consonants in Sahidic Coptic. Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 69:130-131. View

Worrell, William H (1934). Coptic sounds. University of Michigan Studies Humanistic Series; XXVI. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1934. View

Worrell, William H (1937). Popular traditions of the Coptic language. The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 54(1):1-11. View

Worrell, William H & Vycichl, Wener (1942). Popular traditions of the Coptic language. In: Coptic texts in the University of Michigan collection. Ed: William H Worrell. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1942: pp. 297-342. View

Worrell, William H (1942). Texts in phonetic transcription. In: Coptic texts in the University of Michigan collection. Ed: William H Worrell. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1942: pp. 344-354. View

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12 responses to “Resources

  1. magdy

    great stuff
    GOD BLESS YOU

  2. Dear Ambrose,

    Amazing work, great collection, keep the good work coming, so happy to see this information on Coptic language

  3. Amoun

    NANEF EMASHOOOOOOOOOOOO

  4. Fady Kamel

    I am amazed Ambrose. God bless you dear friend, bless your efforts, and bless all what your hands reach out for. See you soon

  5. Fady Kamel

    Please let us know about any updates to the website. I am sure your research is broad, and may never end (or at least I am hoping). God bless you, and keep us in your prayers please…

  6. Armen

    Great work. Thanx

  7. Thanks for sharing these articles.

  8. Hany Rashwan

    Thankssssssss Do you have any articles about how the Coptic affect the Egyptian Arabic dialect? I mean the inherted words from the ancient Egyptian to the copts and to the Egyptian dialect. Thanks in Advance

    • Hi Hany,

      Thanks for your visit. There are a few articles written on the transmission of Coptic (or broadly native Egyptian) words into the spoken Arabic of Egypt – I have given a short list of references below which you can mostly view from this page.

      It is important to remember that it is very difficult to prove a direct connection between native Egyptian words and Egyptian Arabic words. As a result, many proposed connections must be read with caution. There is also a culture among some Copts to try to derive tenuous Egyptian etymologies for many Egyptian Arabic words or expressions. For example, I have read on several websites that that term ‘Nawruz’ or ‘Nayrouz’ (Coptic new year) is derived from a Coptic word ⲛⲓⲓⲁⲣⲱⲟⲩ, meaning ‘the rivers’. There is no evidence for this whatever, and the term is adequately accounted for by its Persian etymology.

      Bishai, Wilson B (1960). Notes on the Coptic substratum in Egyptian Arabic. Journal of the American Oriental Society 80(3):225-229.

      Bishai, Wilson B (1961). Nature and extent of Coptic phonological influence on Egyptian Arabic. Journal of Semitic Studies 6(2):175-182.

      Bishai, Wilson B (1964). Coptic lexical influence on Egyptian Arabic. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 23(1):39-47.

      Ishak, Emile Maher (1975). The phonetics and phonology of the Bohairic dialect of Coptic and the survival of Coptic words in the Colloquial and Classical Arabic of Egypt and of Coptic grammatical constructions in Colloquial Arabic. Volumes 1 – 4. (A D.Phil Thesis submitted to the University of Oxford, September 1975).

      Sobhy, Georgy PG (1950). Common words in the spoken Arabic of Egypt, of Greek or Coptic origin. Le Caire: Institut français d’archéologie orientale.

      Ishaq, Emile Maher (1991). Egyptian Arabic vocabulary, Coptic influences on. In: The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol 8 of 8. Ed: Aziz S Atiya. New York: Macmillan, 1991: pp. 112-118.

      There are several other references that I will post on this site when I find some time.

      Regards,

      Ambrose

  9. Nabil Sabry Isshak

    Nofri Ambrose
    You might remember meeting you in one of our Coptic culture Society meetings in S Yorkshire, I am in the process of printing a book about Coptic, a good part of it is on the Coptic sounds debate. Your efforts to get so many references on Coptic Sounds site has helped a great deal.
    Nabil Sabry Isshak

  10. Nofri Dear Ambrose
    It’s ages since I opened your site, and since my book ‘The Egyptian Coptic Language’ was printed. Unfortunately I wrote it in Arabic اللغة المصرية القبطية , A good part of it deals with what I called Cyrillic pronunciation, rather than Graeco-Bohairic. May be, God willing, I would be able to prepare a summary of my findings in English
    Oogaay
    Nabil

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